Article name Chinese Workers at the Gold Mines of Sretensky and Chita Districts in the Second Half of the 1920s: Adaptation to New Socio-Cultural Conditions
Authors Sazonova I.Y. Candidate of Geography, Associate Professor,
Bibliographic description Sazonova V. A. Chinese Workers at the Gold mines of Sretensky and Chita Districts in the Second Half of the 1920s: Adaptation to New Socio-Cultural Conditions // Humanitarian Vector. 2022. Vol. 17, No. 3. PP. 69–77. DOI: 10.21209/1996-7853-2022-17-3-69-77.
UDK 908:93/94(571.55)
DOI 10.21209/1996-7853-2022-17-3-69-77
Article type Original article
Annotation The article is devoted to the problem of the stay of Chinese migrants on the territory of the Sretensky and Chita districts in the late 1920s. Due to the insufficient study of this topic, the paper aims to analyze the living conditions of Chinese workers in gold mines. The methodological basis of the work is the principles of historicism, consistency and objectivity. Moreover, the author uses historical and legal methods of scientific research. The study revealed that at the end of the 1920s, the Soviet leadership set the task of accelerating the development and modernization of the economy. Particular attention was paid to gold mining, as the most important branch of the mining industry in the Far Eastern region, requiring immediate restoration. To implement the tasks set by the state, labor was required. In connection with the emergence of objective difficulties in finding workers from the internal reserves of the country, the state authorities decided to attract Chinese migrants as a cheap labor force. Many sectors of the national economy experienced a shortage of workers, including the gold mining enterprises of Sretensky and Chita districts. In turn, due to the unfavorable economic conditions that developed in China at the beginning of the 20th century, Chinese citizens were forced to look for a source of income in a neighboring country. On the basis of published materials and documents obtained from the State Archives of the Trans-Baikal Territory, the author comprehensively covers the life and work of Chinese workers on Soviet territory, as well as the difficulties they faced at the enterprises of the Territory. Due to the fact, that Chinese labor played an important role in mining enterprises, the author paid special attention to the study of working and living conditions of Chinese workers in the gold mines of Sretensky and Chita districts of the Far Eastern Territory. As a result, it was revealed that the main problems of Chinese workers were low wages, difficult working conditions, lack of adequate medical care, ethnic conflicts, inaction on the part of economic authorities, etc. The author pays special attention to the description of the unsatisfactory living conditions in which Chinese migrants had to work in gold mines. Despite the fact that these problems were not ignored by the mining management and government bodies, the measures taken were often untimely and insufficient, which forced Chinese migrants to seek employment of their labor in other enterprises of the region.
Key words chinese workers, China, gold mining, mines, Sretensky and Chita districts, living conditions
Article information
References 1. Larin, A. G. Chinese migrants in Russia. M: Vostochnaya kniga, 2009. (In Rus.) 2. Larin, A. G. The Chinese Diaspora in outlines of global transformations: politics, Economics, law, no. 5, pp. 65–82. 2017. (In Rus.) 3. Vashchuk, A. S. Ethnomigration processes in Primorye in the XX century. Vladivostok: FEB RAS, 2002. (In Rus.) 4. Khodyakov, M. V. The labor force crisis and attempts to resolve it in Russia in 1914–1917. Revolution of 1917 in Russia: events and concepts, consequences and memory: international scientific journal. Practical conf. (St. Petersburg, May 11–12, 2017). St. Petersburg: Dmitry Bulanin publishing house, 2017: 332–338. (In Rus.) 5. Khodyakov, M. V., Zhao Ch. Labor migration of Chinese to Russia during the First World War. Modern History of Russia, no. 1, pp. 7–30, 2017. (In Rus.) 6. Datsyshen, V. G. The Chinese in Siberia in the XVII–XX centuries: problems of migration and adaptation. Krasnoyarsk: Siberian Federal University, 2008. (In Rus.) 7. Datsyshen, V. G. Russian-Chinese families in the USSR: the history of their origin and some characteristics. Bulletin of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia. Series: History of Russia, no. 4, pp. 742–757, 2019. (In Rus.) 8. Datsyshen, V. G. The Union of Chinese workers in Siberia. Russia and the Pacific, no. 3, pp. 95–109, 2019. (In Rus.) 9. Zalesskaya, O. V. Chinese migrants in the Russian Far East: 1858–1938. Dr. sci. diss. Blagoveshchensk, 2009. (In Rus.) 10. Zalesskaya, O. V. Chinese migrants in the gold mining industry in the Far East in the 1920s–1930s, no. 4, pp. 131–137, 2017. (In Rus.) 11. Tkacheva, G. A. The demographic situation in the Russian Far East in the 1920–1930s. Vladivostok: Dalrybvtuz, 2000. (In Rus.) 12. Tkacheva, G. A. Settlement of the Russian Far East by immigrants from China, Korea and Japan in the 1920s. Historical experience of discovery, settlement and development of the Amur and Primorye in the XVII– XX centuries. (On the 350th anniversary of the start of V. D. Poyarkov’s campaign on the Amur): abstracts of reports and communications int. scientific conf. Issue. 2. Vladivostok: Dal’nauka, 1993: 73–75. (In Rus.) 13. Alepko, A. V. On the issue of clubs, theaters and the press of the Chinese diaspora in the Soviet Far East in 1923–1930. History and China: history and prospects of cooperation: materials of international scientific. conf. (Blagoveshchensk May 21–28, 2018). Blagoveshchensk: Blagoveshchensk State Pedagogical University, 2018: 219–223. (In Rus.) 14. Alepko, A. V. Formation and development of the system of higher party education of Chinese communists in the Far East region of the USSR 1923–1936. Russia and China: history and prospects of cooperation: Proceedings of scientific practical conf. (Blagoveshchensk, May 21–28, 2018). Blagoveshchensk: Blagoveshchensk State Pedagogical University, 2018: 211–218. (In Rus.) 15. Kulinich N. G. Cultural and educational work among Chinese immigrants in the cities of the Far East in the 1920–1930s. Vestnik RGGU, no. 4, pp. 120–129, 2012. (In Rus.) 16. Bugai, N. F. Discussions on the problem of forcibly resettled peoples in the 1930s–1940s. Russian historiography. In the collection: The path to the Great Victory: history and modernity. materials of the international scientific-practical conference dedicated to the 75th anniversary of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War. Maykop: Adyghe State University, 2020: 46–51. (In Rus.) 17. Chernolutskaya, E. N. Forced migrations in the Soviet Far East in the 1920s–1950s. Vladivostok: Dalnauka, 2011. (In Rus.) 18. Benton, G. Chinese Migrants and Internationalism: Forgotten Histories, 1917–1945. London; New York; Routledge, 2007. (In Engl.) 19. Chinben, S. The Chinese Immigrants. Manila: Kaisa Para Sa Kaunlaran, Inc., 1992. (In Engl.) 20. McKeown, A. Conceptualizing Chinese Diasporas, 1842 to 1949. The Journal of Asian Studies, no. 2, pp. 306–337, 1999. (In Engl.) 21. Siegelbaum, L. Another “Yellow Peril”: Chinese Migrants in the Russian Far East and the Russian Reaction before 1917. Modern Asian Studies, no. 2, pp. 307–330, 1978. (In Engl.) 22. Cheng, T. A History of Sino-Russian Relations. Washington, D. C: Public Affairs press, 1957. (In Engl.) 23. Tinguy, A. Chinese Immigration to Russia: a Variation on an Old Theme. The Chinese in Europe / Ed. by G. Berton and F. Pieke. London: Macmillan, 1998: 301–319. (In Engl.) 24. Cao Bayin, Ning Yanhong. Chinese workers in Russia as a significant force in the spread of Marxism. Bulletin of the Tambov University. Series: Humanities, no. 1, pp. 80–88, 2016. (In Rus.) 25. Golovin, S. A. Changes in the social structure of the population of the Far East of the USSR: 1923– 1939. Dr. sci. diss. M: Moscow Pedagogical State University, 2008. (In Rus.) 26. Kochegarova, E. D. On the use of Chinese workers in the gold industry of the Far East (1920s–1930s). Russia and China on the Far Eastern borders. Issue. Z. Blagoveshchensk: Publishing house of AmGU, 2002: 379. (In Rus.) 27. Datsyshen, V. G. The Chinese. Historical Encyclopedia of Siberia: in 3 volumes. Novosibirsk: Publishing House “Historical Heritage of Siberia”, Institute of History of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2009. V. 2. K–R. S. 76. (In Rus.)
Full articleChinese Workers at the Gold Mines of Sretensky and Chita Districts in the Second Half of the 1920s: Adaptation to New Socio-Cultural Conditions