||The article is devoted to the problem of the stay of Chinese migrants on the territory of the Sretensky and
Chita districts in the late 1920s. Due to the insufficient study of this topic, the paper aims to analyze the living conditions
of Chinese workers in gold mines. The methodological basis of the work is the principles of historicism,
consistency and objectivity. Moreover, the author uses historical and legal methods of scientific research. The
study revealed that at the end of the 1920s, the Soviet leadership set the task of accelerating the development
and modernization of the economy. Particular attention was paid to gold mining, as the most important branch of
the mining industry in the Far Eastern region, requiring immediate restoration. To implement the tasks set by the
state, labor was required. In connection with the emergence of objective difficulties in finding workers from the
internal reserves of the country, the state authorities decided to attract Chinese migrants as a cheap labor force.
Many sectors of the national economy experienced a shortage of workers, including the gold mining enterprises
of Sretensky and Chita districts. In turn, due to the unfavorable economic conditions that developed in China at
the beginning of the 20th century, Chinese citizens were forced to look for a source of income in a neighboring
country. On the basis of published materials and documents obtained from the State Archives of the Trans-Baikal
Territory, the author comprehensively covers the life and work of Chinese workers on Soviet territory, as well as
the difficulties they faced at the enterprises of the Territory. Due to the fact, that Chinese labor played an important role in mining enterprises, the author paid special attention to the study of working and living conditions
of Chinese workers in the gold mines of Sretensky and Chita districts of the Far Eastern Territory. As a result, it
was revealed that the main problems of Chinese workers were low wages, difficult working conditions, lack of
adequate medical care, ethnic conflicts, inaction on the part of economic authorities, etc. The author pays special
attention to the description of the unsatisfactory living conditions in which Chinese migrants had to work in
gold mines. Despite the fact that these problems were not ignored by the mining management and government
bodies, the measures taken were often untimely and insufficient, which forced Chinese migrants to seek employment
of their labor in other enterprises of the region.
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