Article name Historical Portrait of the Yakut Merchant of the 1st Guild N. D. Everstov
Authors Kushnarеva M.D. Candidate of History, Associate Professor,
Bibliographic description Kushnareva M. D. Historical Portrait of the Yakut Merchant of the 1st Guild N. D. Everstov // Humanitarian Vector. 2024. Vol. 19, no. 2. P. 35–44. DOI: 10.21209/1996-7853-2024-19-2-34-44.
Section Events and Destinies (History of Everyday Life)
UDK 9(С)15
DOI 10.21209/1996-7853-2024-19-2-35-44
Article type Original article
Annotation he article is devoted to the study of the economic and social-educational activities of the Yakut merchant of the 1st guild N. D. Everstov. The main purpose of the publication is to reconstruct the historical portrait of N. D. Everstov. The article used the methodology of the civilizational approach formulated by A. Toynbee. The topic has theoretical and applied relevance. The author determined the origin of N. D. Everstov and the original sources of capital accumulation. In 1894, Everstov was the first Yakut to become a merchant of the 1st guild. In 1900, the trading house “N. D. Everstov” was founded in Yakutsk. In 1901, Everstov was awarded the title of commerce advisor and honorary citizen. The article reveals that Everstov organized a wholesale fur trade and an extensive network of agents in the 1860–1870s, entered the fairs of Irbit and Nizhny Novgorod, and had an annual turnover of 200–800 thousand rubles. In 1867–1878 at auctions in Leipzig they sold more than 50 lots of furs, with a total value of 865 thousand rubles. Dynamics of trade with China in 1865–1878 amounted to 50–100 thousand rubles annually, average profit 700 thousand rubles. N. D. Everstov laid the foundations for bill lending to entrepreneurs in North-Eastern Siberia. In 1860–1879, the lending rate was 12–13 % per annum, the total amount of loans was more than 145 thousand rubles. In 1910–1911, the merchant organized a bank with an authorized capital of 50 thousand rubles. A social and educational activity of N. D. Everstov was expressed in the financing of educational institutions, churches, missionary societies of Yakutsk. In 1915, the state of N. D. Everstov was estimated at 1 million rubles. Everstov’s sons continued their father’s trading and financial activities but were unable to create a large enterprise. The Yakut merchant laid the foundations for conducting trade and financial business with large capital in North-Eastern Siberia, organized the wholesale supply of consumer goods to the population of the region through the ports of the Sea of Okhotsk, and formed the trade and transport infrastructure of the macro-region.
Key words merchants, North-Eastern Siberia, fur trade, philanthropy, bank
Article information
References 1. Dameshek, L. M., Mamkina, I. N. Siberia in the system of imperial legislation of the 18th – early 20th centuries: law and practice: monograph. Chita: ZabGU Publ., 2021. (In Rus.) 2. State power and society: based on materials from the cities of the Irkutsk province of the 19th – early 20th centuries: collective monograph. Ed. by L. M. Dameshek. Irkutsk: Ottisk Publ., 2019. (In Rus.) 3. Dameshek, L. M. Siberian “foreigners” in the imperial strategy of power (XVIII – early XX century): Monograph. Vol. I. Irkutsk: Ottisk Publ., 2018. (In Rus.) 4. Zakharov, V. P. Nikolai Dmitrievich Everstov-Serbeke. Adm. Namsk. Ulus IGIiPMNS SO RAN. Namsky Ulus History, Culture, Folklore. Yakutsk, 2010: 347–350. (In Rus.) 5. Zakharov, V. P. Fur trade and trade in Yakutia (late 19th – early 20th centuries). Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1995. (In Rus.) 6. Zakharov, V. P. 100 years since the opening of the Yakut City Public Bank N. D. Everstova. Yakutia-2011. Calendar of significant and memorable dates. Yakutsk, 2011: 53–54. (In Rus.) 7. Zakharov, V. P. Merchant of the 1st guild, commercial advisor N. D. Everstov. Acceptance of Russian citizenship in the 17th century peoples of Yakutia and modernity: region Scientific practice conf. Yakutsk, 2009: 4–8. (In Rus.) 8. Mathanova, N. P. Siberian memoirs of the 19th century. Ed. by N. N. Pokrovsky. Novosibirsk: Izd-vo SO RAN, 2010. (In Rus.) 9. Goncharov, Yu. M. Siberian merchants of the mid-19th – early 20th centuries in the views of contemporaries. Entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in Siberia, issue. 3, pp. 210–217, 2001. (In Rus.) 10. Wood, A. Introduction: The Role of Siberia in Russian History. The History of Siberia. From Russian Conquest to Revolution. London, 1991. (In Eng.) 11. Gibson, J. R. Feeding the Russian Fur Trade: Provisionment of the Okhotsk Seaboard and the Kamchatka Peninsula. 1639–1856. Madison. Wisconsin, 1969. (In Eng.) 12. Bassin, M. Inventing Siberia: Views of Russian East in the Beginning of the XIX Century. American Historical Review, vol. 96, pp. 763–794, 1991. (In Eng.) 13. Kobtzeff, O. Ruling Siberia: The Imperial Power, the Orthodox Church and the Native People. Sibirica. Lancaster University, vol. 2, pp. 5–15, 1986. (In Eng.) 14. Lensen, G. The Russian Push Toward Japan. Russo-Japanese Relation. 1697–1875. Princeton, 1959. (In Eng.) 15. Toynbi, A. Dzh. Comprehension of history. M: Progress Publ., 2002. (In Rus.) 16. History of Yakutia: in 3 vol. Vol.  II. Edited by A. N. Alekseeva, A. A. Borisov, A. I. Makarova, A. P. Nikolaev. Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 2021. (In Rus.) 17. Breslavskaya, T. S. Merchants of Transbaikalia in the context of regulatory regulation of trade of the Russian Empire in the 18th–19th centuries. Bulletin of the BSC SB RAS. Ulan-Ude: Publishing house BSC SB RAS, no. 3, pp. 31–37, 2023. (In Rus.) 18. Kushnareva, M. D. Fur trade in North-Eastern Siberia in correspondence of representatives of companies with large capital in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries. Irkutsk: IGU Publ., 2017. (In Rus.) 19. Sirokhin, A. I. The emergence of the merchant class and the formation of its legal status as a result of differentiation of the class of urban inhabitants in the Russian Empire (XVIII–XIX centuries). Law and state: theory and practice, no. 4, pp. 20–23, 2023. (In Rus.) 20. Vucinich, W. S. Russia and Asia: Essays of the influence of Russia on the Asian Peoples. Stanford. 1972. (In Eng.) 21. Safronov, F. G. Okhotsk-Kamchatka Territory (Roads of communication, population, supplies and agriculture before the revolution). Yakutsk: Yakutknigoizdat, 1958. (In Rus.) 22. Kushnareva, M. D. The role of the merchant N. D. Everstov in the development of fur trade by large firms in the Yakut region in the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries. Historical, philosophical, political and legal sciences, cultural studies and art history. Questions of theory and practice, no. 6: in 2 parts, part 1, pp. 102–106, 2014. (In Rus.) 23. Safronov, F. G. Pacific windows of Russia: from the history of the development by Russian people of the coasts of the Okhotsk and Bering Seas, Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. Khabarovsk: Kn. Izd-vo, 1988. (In Rus.) 24. Kushnareva, M. D. The role of trade customs in the legal regulation of fur trade in the Russian Empire (based on materials from North-Eastern Siberia in the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries). Bulletin of Irkutsk State University, vol. 38, pp. 65–72, 2021. (In Rus.) 25. Komleva, E. V. Siberian Merchants: Contribution to the Economic Development and Study of North-Eastern Eurasia (late 18th–19th Centuries). Novosibirsk: Parallel Publ., 2018. (In Rus.)
Full articleHistorical Portrait of the Yakut Merchant of the 1st Guild N. D. Everstov