Article name The Narrative of Parthenius (Ageev) on the Accession of the Kyrgyz Steppe to Russia: from the History of Christianization of Central Asian Peoples
Authors Smirnova I.Y. Doctor of History,
Bibliographic description Smirnova I. Yu. The Narrative of Parthenius (Ageev) on the Accession of the Kyrgyz Steppe to Russia: From the History of Christianization of Central Asian peoples // Humanitarian Vector. 2024. Vol. 19, no. 2. P. 150–162. DOI: 10.21209/1996-7853-2024-19-2-150-162.
UDK 94(510.4); 94(574); 94(470)”16/18”
DOI 10.21209/1996-7853-2024-19-2-150-162
Article type Original article
Annotation In the context of studying the history of the Orthodox presence of Russia in Central Asia and Western China, we have analyzed the well-known narrative source – the note of schema-abbot Parthenius (Aggeyeva 1806–1878) “First news of the Russians in Ghulja” from the point of view of its objectivity and correspondence to the historical events of the 3rd quarter of the XIXth century, associated with the annexation of Central Asian territories to the Russian Empire, such as the establishment of Russian consulates in Kuldzha and Chuguchak (1851), the fate of Russian trading posts during the Dungan uprising (1850s – 1860s), the Kuldzha campaign of General G. A. Kolpakovsky and the annexation of the Kuldzha region to the Turkestan General Government (1871), the first stages of negotiations on its return to China (1870s). We pay particular attention to the main plot of Parthenius’s narrative – the Orthodox Christianization of the Central Asian peoples who accepted Russian citizenship. The methodological basis was the methods of historical science (chronological, comparative, content analysis, etc.) with the involvement of the results of research by authoritative historians and archival documents from Russian archives that were not introduced into scientific circulation in order to comply with the principles of historicism and objectivity. In the process of research based on linking plots from the text of schema-abbot Parthenius (Ageev) to specific events from the history of the acquisition of Central Asian possessions by the Russian Empire, it was possible to reconstruct the picture described by Parthenius and correct the shortcomings made by the author. As the results of the analysis have shown, the picture presented by Parthenius, despite the deviations from the chronological and geographical framework, corresponds in the main to the real events and can serve as evidence of the voluntary acculturation of the population of the accession territories. In this respect, the Fr. Parthenius’ narrative is a valuable historical source that should be taken into account when reconstructing the processes of migration, assimilation and Christianization of the peoples of the Kyrgyz steppe and Western China.
Key words Russian-Chinese relations, the accession of Central Asia to Russia, Ili region, Kyrgyz steppe, Western China, Orthodox missionary, Parthenius (Ageev)
Article information
References 1. Parfeniy (Ageev), enoch. The first news of the Russians in Gulja and the annexation of the Kyrgyz steppe to Russia: The manuscript of the monk Parthenius, reported by D. F. Kositsyn. Russian Herald, no. 9, pp. 5–21, 1878. (In Rus.) 2. Khalfin, N. A. Russian policy in Central Asia (1857–1868). M: Izdatel’stvo vostochnoi literatury, 1960. (In Rus.) 3. Gurevich, B. P. The history of the “Ili Question” and its Chinese falsifiers. Ed. by Tikhvinskiy, S. L. Against falsification of the history of Russian-Chinese relations. M: Mysl’, 1982: 423–459. (In Rus.) 4. Huges, E. R. The Invasion of China by the Western World. N. Y: Macmillan & Co., 1968. (In Eng.) 5. Scott, D. China and the International System, 1840–1949: Power, Presence, and Perceptions in a Century of Humiliation. SUNY Press, 2008. (In Eng.) 6. Marshall, A. The Russian General Staff and Asia, 1860-1917. Routledge, 2006. (In Eng.) 7. Shikhanov, N. A. The policy of the government of the Qing Empire on the settlement of Kalmyk-Torguts in China at the end of the 18th century. Klio, no. 6, pp. 90–94, 2021. (In Rus.) 8. Baranova, Yu. On the issue of resettlement of the Muslim population from the Ili region to Semirechye in 1881–1883. In Proceedings of the sector of eastern leadership of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR. Vol.1. Alma-Ata: Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, 1959: 33–52. (In Rus.) 9. Bekmakhanova, N. E. Multinational population of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan in the era of capitalism (60s of the XIX century – 1917). M: Izdatel’stvo “Nauka”, 1986. (In Rus.) 10. Bekmakhanova, N. E. The accession of Central Asia to the Russian Empire in the 18th–19th centuries. M: Institut rossiiskoi istorii RAN; Sankt-Peterburg: Tsentr gumanitarnykh initsiativ, 2015. (In Rus.) 11. Tumaikina, V. V. The question of Chinese emigrants who came to the territory of Semirechye in the second half of the 19th century. Izvestiya of Altai State University, no. 4–5, pp. 214–218, 2008. (In Rus.) 12. Vasil’ev, D. V. Outpost of the Empire. Administrative policy of Russia in Central Asia. Mid-19th century. M: IBP, 2015. (In Rus.) 13. Vasil’ev, D. V., Asanova, S. A. A Shelter for the Suffering: Migration from Xinjiang to Russia in the 1860s–1880s. Bulletin of Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia. Series Russian history, no. 1, pp. 34–46, 2023. (In Rus.) 14. Nikolay (Adoratskiy), hieromonk. The Situation of Missionary Work in China. Orthodox Interlocutor, no. 5, pp. 68–96, 1895. (In Rus.) 15. Muradyan, A. A. American missionaries in the countries of the Far East, Southeast Asia and Oceania in the 19th century. М: Nauka, 1971. (In Rus.) 16. Shubina, S. A. Diplomatic activities of the Russian spiritual mission in China (XVIII–XIX centuries). Yaroslavl Pedagogical Bulletin, no. 1, pp. 189–193, 2010. (In Rus.) 17. Whyte, R. Unfinished Encounter: China and Christianity. London: Morehouse, 1988. (In Eng.) 18. Charbonnier, J. Histoire des Chrétiens de Chine. Paris: Desclée, 1992. (In French) 19. Madsen, R. China’s Catholics: Tragedy and Hope in an Emerging Civil Society. Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1998. (In Eng.) 20. Uhalley, S. Jr., Wu Xiaoxin. China and Christianity: Burdened Past, Hopeful Future. Armonk (N. Y.): M. E. Sharpe. 2015. (In Eng.) 21. Nightingale, P., Skrine C. P. Macartney at Kashgar: New Light on British, Chinese and Russian Activities in Sinkiang, 1890–1918. London: Routledge, 2013. (In Eng.) 22. Bizhigitova, K. S. Religious and moral state of the Siberian and Semirechensk Cossacks (second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries). Bulletin of Abay KazNPU, series “Historical and socio-political sciences”, no. 2, pp. 16–20, 2013. (In Rus.) 23. Mongush, M. V. Russian cultural heritage abroad (on the example of Japan and China). Russian Regions: A Look into the Future. 2017. Web. 05.03.2024. (In Rus.) 24. Komissarova, E. N. Problems of studying cultural monuments of Russian emigration in the province of Xinjiang in Western China. In Leykind, O. L. Fine arts, architecture and art history of Russian diaspora. Saint Petersburg: Dmitry Bulanin, 2008. (In Rus.) 25. Stepanova, S. I. Prophet Elijah Church in the city of Gulja. 2021. Web. 05.03.2024. (In Rus.) 26. Bukharin, M. D. New Documents on the History of Exploration of East Turkestan from the Turfan-Sammlung. New and recent history, no. 1, pp. 214–222, 2021. DOI: 10.31857/S013038640013389-5. (In Rus.) 27. Lukhtanov, A. G. The city of Verny and Semirechensk region. Almaty, 2014. (In Rus.) 28. Kudryavtseva, E. P. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the second quarter of the 19th century. M: MGIMO–Universitet, 2019. (In Rus.) 29. Volkov, I. V. Missionary work and state-religious relations in Turkestan. Bulletin of Saratov State Socio-Economic University, no. 4, pp. 203–206, 2009. (In Rus.) 30. Asanova, S. A. The meaning of the Russian presence in Central Asia using the example of Kulja. Bulletin of Volgograd State University. Episode 4: History. Regional studies. International relationships, no. 5, pp. 64–76, 2020. DOI: 10.15688/jvolsu4.2020.5.6. (In Rus.) 31. Zarubin, I. Along the mountains and steppes of Central Asia. Russian Herald, no. 12, pp. 658–674, 1879. (In Rus.) 32. Prokhorov, A. A. On the issue of the Soviet-Chinese border. M: Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 1975. (In Rus.) 33. Kuropatkin, A. N. The Russian-Chinese question. Saint Petersburg: Tip. t-va A. S. Suvorina “Novoe vremya”, 1913. (In Rus.) 34. Mongush, M. V. Russian cultural heritage in Xinjiang. Journal of the Heritage Institute, no. 2, 2016. Web. 05.03.2024. (In Rus.)
Full articleThe Narrative of Parthenius (Ageev) on the Accession of the Kyrgyz Steppe to Russia: from the History of Christianization of Central Asian Peoples