||A Philosophy of the Act by M. Bakhtin is regarded as an original metaphysical concept offering a direct path from facts to moral action, bypassing the link of theoretical normativity. Normativity in this case is understood not as the determining basis for action but just as auxiliary material for decision-making. At the same time, the problem of oughtness understood as a special orientation of consciousness responsible for converting opportunities into actions is brought to the foreground. It is shown that the moral oughtness is determined by the unique, dialogic and polyphonic nature of human existence. These characteristics not only describe the specifics of a person’s being but also act as imperatives orienting person’s actions in the world and in the aggregate defining the basis of his obligation. Human existence was viewed by Bakhtin as being-to-uniqueness, opposed to all uniformity. It manifests itself not as passivity and obedience to norms but as an active and creative oughtness oriented towards finding a unique place in being. Movement in the opposite direction is equivalent to refusal from personal existence. Dialogue in the philosophy by Bakhtin is both an ontological and deontological category. Since only the other ensures my existence, he is my actual creator, guarantor and judge, it is his very existence which obliges me to acts aimed at his good. Finally, polyphony implies the rejection of a privileged position in being and recognition of the admissibility and equality of various positions (including opposing ones). The polyphonic approach returns the problem of normativity to moral philosophy, turning it into one of the facets of oughtness.
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